فصلنامه تخصصی
تابستان 1390
شماره 40

جهت بزرگنمایی عکس کلیک نمایید
جهت بزرگنمایی عکس کلیک نمایید
 

چکیده انگلیسی  


مفتخری حسین  



Redefining the Battles of Amir-e-Momenan Ali (PBUH) from the Viewpoint of Theological Sects

Dr. Hossein Moftakhari
Assistant Prof, Teacher Training University, Tehran

Nabi allah Baqerizad Ganji
M.A. in History of Islam

A series of incidents started from the middle of Uthman’s Caliphate and ended to his death and also the events of five-year- Caliphate of Ali particularly the battles of Jamal, Saffein, and Nahravan had a major role in the appearance of political and theological views. The issues like blasphemy and faith which was the major concern of people caused the Muslims’ intellectual disputes.
This matter made the theological sects mention the diverse opinions related to these battles, the participants and the killed people in them. These views will be investigated in the present article.

Key Terms: Ali, Ayeshe, Talhe, Zobair, Moavieh, Jamal, Saffein, khawarej, Ahl Baghy



A Reflection on the Education and Research of Historical Geography in Iran

Dr. Abbas Ahmadvand
Assistant Prof, Zanjan University

In spite of a great number of ancient historical geography texts among Iranian and although in the recent decades, a course under the title of “historical geography” is taught in the universities of Iran and some researchers are engaged in this regard, the concept and meaning of this multidisciplinary knowledge is still suffering from vagueness and is mixed with the other sciences such as archeology and local history.
So in the present article, after the investigation of definitions, the record of teaching, its methods and the researches done in this regard, we will investigate the issues related to the teaching and study of this science in Iran, and will offer some solutions to get released from its difficulties.

Key Terms: historical geography, the study of historical geography in Iran, the teaching of the historical geography in Iran, local history.



History and Necessity of Convergence with the Social Sciences

Seyyed Abolfazl Razavi
Assistant Professor of History Department, Lorestan University

Reconsidering the history would be a mental task and historian’s mind is shaped in the structural ground of society in which he lives. Having the date of the study and the analysis of the structural elements of the society in the past centuries in line with answering to the issues and the structural elements of society in the time being, he will investigate this issue through picking out the subject matters prevalent between past and present. The historians’ knowledge and insight is due to the society in which they live and this knowledge and insight will have an outstanding effect on choosing the research issues, the issues studied in structural horizon of the past but dependent on the present time. The present time and the issues related to it are of lively and dynamic nature and mastery to its different aspects is in need of various specialties. The human being and his life as a generality is the subject matter of the study in different sciences and achieving a perfect knowledge of this generality will not be possible for the specialists of one science.
Therefore, the intellectuals of different sciences would not have a deep knowledge of the life of human being except through a close and continuous interaction with the owners of various disciplines. Also, the history as a science which studies the past of human being with the purpose of profitability, can achieve this goal through the interaction with the intellectuals of different sciences particularly the specialties of social sciences.
The necessity of this interaction which would be so effective in the generality, stability, profitability and continuing the historical data and provides the grounds of promotion in the historical epistemology is an issue- at least in raising the necessity of the subject- that will be investigated in this article.

Key Terms: history, the science of history, the social sciences, society, the social structure.


The Effect of Prayer in the Cultural and Civilized Growth of Shi’ah

Dr. Ali Nuri Motlaq
Assistant Prof, Research Center of Humanities and Cultural Studies

Azam Ashuri
M.A. in Islamic Theology

The prayer is a direct path for making interaction between human being and omnipotent God. It is the way which begins from the deepest inward layers of human being and ends to the highest position of existence. Therefore, the prayer is considered as the most fundamental needs of every human being. The outward aspect, depth, direction, content, time, location, and the conditions of the prayer and the worshiper would greatly affect on the bringing up, life, and dynamism of the life of individual and society.
This research looks for the effect of prayer on making and culminating the culture and civilization of Shi’ah and it follows to prove this hypothesis that “the prayer has a great effect on the cultural and civilized growth of Shi’ah”
In this article, a prayer (Nodbah), a supplication (Makarem al-Akhlaq), a ziaratnameh (Amin Allah) from the most important and credible shi’ite prayers will be studied through the method of content analysis.

Key Terms: prayer, culture, civilization, the study of civilization, shi’ah.


The Criticism and Investigation of Historical and Civilized Approach of Hassan Hanafi to Islam and Islamic Heritage

Nasrollah Aghajani
Faculty Member of Social Science Department, Bagher-Ol-Olum University

Hassan Hanafi, one of the contemporary intellectuals of Egypt, has spent many years of his life in compiling various works related to “Islam and modernity” or according to his interpretation “al tajdid va al torath” (reconstruction and heritage) and this has raised many different reflections. His theoretical bases are derived from schools like Husserl’s Phenomenology, Marksism, and Socialism and also Relativism, functionalism, sacredness, Empiricism, Omanism, and historical civilized attitudes are the approaches he applies in the analysis of Islamic heritage.
In his historical civilized approach, through investigating the issue of “Islamic heritage and modernity”, he believes in a history for every period and a soul for every civilization; it means that the thoughts are born in particular historical and civilized conditions and any thought is a civilized thinking and an interpretation from the soul of its own century.
He believes that the nature and basis of the religion is merely an intellectual hypothesis which does not exist except among the historical interpretations of interpreters.
Through discriminating between revelatory Islam and civilized one and by putting the revelatory Islam aside, Hanafi seeks to make a basis not to be accused for the sake of ignoring some of the most fundamental bases of Islamic heritage; so he turns to the historical nature of heritage. He believes that heritage is a thoughtful interpretation from the phenomena of every century and a theoretical compilation from its intellectual disputes. Heritage is not a heavenly issue but it is of a historical existence and a social evolution. Hanafi’s historical approach is mixed with his materialist approach and a material interpretation from prophecy and resurrection has been made. He considers the west civilization as a historical and centrifugal one and on the other hand, he introduces the Islamic civilization and its knowledge as a centripetal one which has been formed based on the centrality of domination and power.

Key Terms: Hassan Hanafi, civilization, civilized approach, historical approach.



The Discourse Analysis of the Appearance and Evolution of Safavid Sufism (from Sheikh Safi to Sheikh Heidar, 700 to 893)

Parvin Habibi Kord Alivand
M.A. in History of Islam

Sophists played a great role in the religious tendencies of the society. Also safavid household had an important effect on not only the Iranian society but also the people out of Iran. Knowing the salient people of safavid household before the establishment of safavid government and the discourse analysis of their role in political – religious evolutions before the formation of this government will be the major issue of the present article.
In religious aspect, safavid household increasingly attracted people unpleased with the political issues dominated at that time toward monastery and asceticism and through sending some caliphs to various regions in and out of Iran, brought up new and old human powers. These human powers considered as Sheikh Safi’s followers came to the monastery of Ardebil and repented and asked forgiveness in the presence of Sheikh Safi and later in that of his successors.
Therefore, a great number of followers had made worried the governments of the time, so they made up their mind to annihilate the sophists and sheikhs. In the opposite, the sophists who couldn’t stand in front of the previous division of sufism consisted of religious and spiritual symptoms like before, stimulated the followers for attack, harshness, and bloodshed. So in this period of time, it can be seen a sort of substitution of symptoms in the division of sophism’s discourse and also some changes in the texts of that period from religious to political discourse (from Sheikh Safi to Sheikh Heidar, 700 to 893). These evolutions will be investigated based on the view of Lakla and Muff and the method of foregrounding and backgrounding. Lakla and Muff raised a post-structuralism view based on it all the social phenomena are formed under the effect of discourse processes.

Key Terms: discourse theory, sufism, foregrounding and backgrounding, Lakla and Muff.




The Investigation of Vaset City’s Civil Circumstance until the Third Century

Asghar Montazaralghaem
Associate Professor of History Deprartment, Isfahan Universty

Roghaye Amini
The former Student at Ph. D., History of Islam, Isfahan University

This article aims to investigate the position of Vaset city and its civil elements. Through the method of descriptive analysis, this article seeks an answer to this question “why was the Vaset city established? And which elements were effective in its development?” Vaset city-established in 84 Hejri- is like the cities constructed according to the Islamic architecture and inspired from the Islamic values.
At first, the city was constructed to settle the soldiers and armies but little by little, it was turned into a developed Islamic city by accepting the civil properties. Besides the analysis of some views around the establishment of the city related to the geographical situation, Mesopotamia and its relationship with the Islamic urbanization, the other sections of this article has to do with the grounds for the formation of Vaset city, the way of construction, its salient features and civil elements such as mosque, government palace, bazaar, localities, and the way of selecting the city’s location.

Key Terms: Islamic urbanization, Vaset, Islamic architecture, civil elements, urban sociology.