فصلنامه تخصصی
تابستان 1390
شماره 39

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چکیده انگلیسی  


الویری محسن  



A Comparison of the Structure of the Text of the Qur'an and Historical Sources in Reports of Selected Events of the Prophet's Period

Dr Mohsen Alviri
Assistant prof, Imam Sadigh (A) University
Mohammad Hasan Akhlaghi
PhD Student of Exegesis & Qurَanic Sciences, Jami'ah-tal-Mustafa al-Alamiyah

The Structure of Historical Reports is one of the favorite topics of historians and philosophers of the science of history a contrastive analysis of which in the Qar'an and the historical texts of early Islam centuries can pave the way for studying the effect of objective on the structure of historical reports.
The most common method of reviewing the structure of a text including historical reports is to take into account its horizontal structure, vertical structure, and the one that is focused on the meaning. In the horizontal structure, elements such as table of contents, introduction, the main text, and the conclusion are the main points of attention. In the vertical structure, however, words, sentences and clauses attract the most attention. On the other hand, in the meaning–oriented structure, the three elements of the redundance of structure, the repetition of meaning, and the expansion of meaning in full are taken into consideration. In this paper, the structure of historical reports in the Qur'an are compared with selected texts of early Islamic centuries with having several major events of the Prophet's era in Medina in mind. While embarking on a comparison of vertical structure, the authenticity of issue, the linkage, the cohesion, and the chronological observation related to the historical reports have also been compared both in the Qur'an and the selected historical texts. The article ends with the offer that if religious goals and ideals overshadow the humanities including historiography, it will be possible to speak of the necessity of establishing a particular kind of aim-oriented structure in historical reporting alongside the existing structures of the present time.

Keywords: The Qur'an; the structure of the text; historical sources; Prophetic era; Medinan age.


The Purposefulness of History

Dr. Seyyed Alireza Vasei
Faculty Member, Pazhooheshgah-e Farhang-e Eslami

"The future of history" or "The purposefulness of history" is deeply rooted in human thought attracting much study and scrutiny since ancient times. In recent decades a new discipline titled "future study or history of the future" has been added to the curriculum of academic establishments. Although many thinkers look at this phenomenon from a religious viewpoint, a number of other intellctuals have approached it from a philosophical point of view. Accoiding to their position, these intellectuals have tried to understand "history as reality", find out it's future direction, and thus open a window to "the future" and predict the panorama for the future human life.
In this papers after dealing with the "purposefulness" approach, the short-sightedness of other views and theories on "the future of history" is brought to life. However, from a scientific point of view, the existing ambiguities about the issue remain unanswered as to whether with the assumption of the existence of a reality called "history" (through which only a limited number of dimensions and aspects of past human life can be brought to life) it is possible to prove the "purposefulness of history" and predict the future. In other words, the question is whether the future of history, based on duman knowledge and on top of all historical findings, can be recognized and understood or whether to imagine such a phenomenon is the result of unscientific hallucinations of human beings. This article deals with the various aspect, of this theory.
Keywords: purpose of history; philosophy of history; historicism; history – based view; periods of history; the future of history.


An Investigation into the Leadership Style and Methods of Obiedence – Seeking of Followers in Shi'ah Uprisings During the Umayyad Rule

Dr. Nematollah Karamollahi
Faculty Member, Baghir-al-ulum University

Abuzar Karamollahi
Faculty Member, Payam-e Noor University of Lorestan

To surpass history as just a process of verbal transfer of information and enter the domain of analytical history necessitates the use of human Knowledge in the realms of humanities and social sciences. Having this in mind and adopting a sociological approach, this investigation tries to analyze the social – political developments of a certain period of Islam's history. While reviewing the Shi'ah uprisings of 62-132 A.H., through employing the historical – comparative method, this investigation studies and determines the typology of these uprising's points of convergence and divergence based on their "leadership style" and "methods of obedience – seeking of followers. "Based on the findings of the investigation, the "Tawwabin" and "Zayd ibn Ali" uprisings can be classified in one type (considering our two criterions of classification) while "Mukhtar" and "Abdullah ibn Mu'awiyah" uprisngs are categorized in another type.

Keywords: Shi'ah uprisings; typology; leadership style; methods of obedience – seeking of followers.



The Sociology of the Science of History and Historiography (The Raising, Critique, and Review of the Feminist View)

Majid Kafi
Faculty Member, Pazhooheshkkadeh-ye Howzeh va Daneshgah

This article intends to bring up criticisms leveled against the science of traditional history and official historiographies, from in between epistemological studies of the feministic plilosophy of science, and achieve the reconstruction of an unofficial historiography from the viewpoint of feminists.
Hence, the question raised by this research is posed as such: from a feminist point of view, what are the criticisms brought up against historical studies and traditional historiographies, and what kind of a science will the feminist science of history and historiography be in the future?
This article has been compiled in the realm of knowledge and science based on a critical approach and with the objective to analyze and study the content of the claims of the feminist movement and in particalar its epistemological branch. The feminist epistemology and philosophy of science deal with the formation of various sciences with a feminist approach. The feminists have either said nothing about the science of history and historiography or what they have said and written is so little that can be dismissed as negligible. Therefore, this investigation, through the model proposed by feminists in the fields of knowledge and science, tries to take a look at the science of history and historiography from a feminist point of view.
This research intends to bring to the attention of the learned women of the Iranian society the dimensions and challenges of epistemological feminism and prove to them that it is in their interest to try to acquire a better understanding of their own history and culture that will ultimately bring them a better future rather than deal with those issues that are irrelevant to women within the Iranian – Islamic culture and civilization.

Keywords: feminism; epistemological feminism; feminist philosophy of science; traditional historiography; feminist historiography.

History in the Thinking System of al-Jabiri

Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori
M.A. in History of Islam Civilization, Mojtame-e Ali-ye Imam Khomeini (R).

Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri, the well – known contemporary Morocean writer, has produced many works. His theoretical philosophy of history is of particular importance among the existing theoretical philosophies. In comparison with contemporary theoretical philosophies, Jabiri's theory presents new concepts and approaches for the study and understanding of the history of Islam. By concentrating on the three elements of tribe, booty, and ideology, Jabiri embarked upon the study of Islam's history and presented valuable new ideas. Certainly, serious criticisms raised against his opinions are sometimes justified; criticisms such as incorrect references and flawed reasonings drawn out of historical data. Inherent contradictions in Jabiri's words and his prejudgments are among such criticisms that are dealt with in this article.

Keywords: Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri; history of Islam; theoretical philosophy of history; tribe; booty; ideology.



The Book "Athar at–Tashayyu' al ar-Rawayat at-Tarikhiyyah" Metodological Documantation Check

Mohammad Ghafoori
M.A. in History of Islam, Baghir-al-ulum University

Nowadays, an extremist Sunni trend is trying to accuse the Shi'ah of the fabrication of history and forging historical reports through the reevaluation of historical texts. One representative of this trend is Abd-ul-Aziz Nur-Vali who has tried to follow this line in his work, "Athar at-Tashayyu' al ar-Rawayat at-Tarikhiyyah", in order to piovide the necessary pretext to discredit and eliminate the Shi'i Reports and Traditions (Akhbar and Ahadith).
This investigation reviews and critiques the method, Some Selective documents, and content of Nur-Vali's work in defense of Shi'ah historiography. The author has also tried to show Nur-Vali's work has not enjoyed a fair and wisely critique.

Keywords: Shi'ah; historiography; Wahhabism; Abd-ul-Aziz Nur-Vali.



The incomplete Heritage of Feiz-e Kashani for the Western World*

Dr. Andrew Newman
Translation: Seyyed Ahmad Hoseini
Prof of Islamic Studies and Farsi Language, Faculty of Islamic Middle – Eastern Studies, Edinburgh University

The Pivotal point of this article is to demonstrate studies about Feiz-e Kashani in the western world. To realize his goal, the writer first undertakes a review of western studies about Sheikh-e Baha'i (1040 A.H./1620 A.D.) and shows that western understanding of Sheikh Bahai's works and services has had an increasing growth and improvement. The writer (referring the reader to his other works on the topic) considers his article to be effective in correcting a number of western misconceptions about Sheikh-e Baha'i and the issues of his age, in particular of those who have made the Sheikh's mystic and Traditionalistic (hadith – based) inclinations prominent.


Citing texts of the Safavid era, the writer continues his article holding the difference between the Akhbari* (Traditionalist) – Usuli (Rationalist) schools to go boyond fighhi (legal) texts. and tries to place Feiz-e Kashani in his proper postion in the midst of all this. The writer believes that Kashani's position that Friday prayers are compulsory in the Occultation Period and his agreement to act as the Friday prayers leader himself is indicative of Feiz's social approach and his loyalty to the state, and that his later decision to resign from this post had been rooted in his concern over the rising differences among the people. The article has classifed the intelleatual opponents of Feiz into four separate groups and discussed his opinion about them as well. Also, the article evaluates the view of one of Feiz's contemporary scholars as correct regarding the calling of Feiz as Mujtahid-e Muhaddith (The Relator – of – Hadith Jurist). This effort by the writer is in fact a reaction to the incomplete and incoherent picture of Feiz that still persists in the West. According to the anthor, the reason for this is that most of the commentators and interpreters of Feiz-e Kashani's works have emphasized on his heritage rather than present their conceptual interpretations or historical studies of Feiz's works.

Keywords: orientalism; Feiz-e Kashani; Sheikh-e Bahai; Akhbarigari (Traditionalism); Safavid; Friday prayers leadership.