توبه يانی ابراهيم
چکیده مقالات به زبان انگلیسی
Divine Traditions and Historical Events; Miqrizi's View "Aghathah tol-Ommah Bi kashf il-Ghommah"
A Case Study
Zahra Roohollahi Amiri
Faculty Member, Baghir – ol – Olum (A) University
History and world events have been very important to men since distant pasts. They were even more important to Muslim historians who had their own particular agenda of following up on history. Like many other Muslim historians, Miqrizi, the Egyptian historian of the 9th century had had a special interest in hisotory though he had authored works in other fields as well. Like his contemporary historian, Ibn Khaldun, he is one of the first people who began to ask questions about the hows and whys of different phenomenons and events in the world. Among Miqrizi's works, because of its philosophical approach and particular attention to the influence of social and economic issues on historical events, "Aghathah tol-Ommah Bi kashf il-Ghommah" is distinguished from his other works.
Keywords: Miqrizi; historical view; divine tradition; historical laws.
Fadhlollah ibn Ruzbahan Khonji and Shari'atnameh Writing in the 9th Century
Dr. Hosein Izadi
Faculty Member, Baghir-ol-Olum (A) University
After the rise of Shah Esma'il and the establishment of the Safavid government which was based on the shi'ah creed, shari'atnameh writing rose to prominence once more, Fadhlollah ibn Ruzbahan Khonji is among the people who, in order to counter the safavid power, presented the idea of the revival of the caliphate and its unification with the absolute monarchy in the context of shari'atnameh writing. This paper reviews his opinions in this regard during two period's of his life, in the Aq Quyunlu Age and at the court of Uzbek Khans in Transoxiana after the rise of Safavid dynasty. The article regards him as the last major figure in Shari'atnameh wrtiting and one who deviated this practice from its main stream objectives and principles.
Keywords: Fadhl ibn Ruzbahan; caliphate; caliph; monarchy; Sultan.
An Investigation into the Historiography of Islamic Maghrib; A Review of "al-Bayan il-Mughrib fi Akhbar il-Andalus wal-Maghrib
Dr. Yoonos Farhanmand
Assistant Prof; Islamic Open University, Tehran Science and Research Branch
Abul-abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Íżári is the best-known Maghribi historian before Ibn Khaldun who created one of the most important historical pieces of Islamic Maghrib through writing "al-Bayan il-Mughrib fi Akhbar il-Andalus wal-Maghrib". This paper has embarked on a rediscovery of this book and its status among the historical writings of Islamic Maghrib, as well as a study of its author's methodology of writing and his sources of citation. The paper concludes that despite its compilation in the 8th century, the book includes numerous reports and rare stories that have elevated its status to the rank of a firsthand source. In addition, the writing method of its historical reports is a combination of almanac – wtiting and topic – based book – wtriting techniques delivered in a simple and fluent style.
Keywords: historiography; al-Bayan il-mughrib; Islamic Maghrib; Ibn Íżári; Andalusia.
The Political and Economic Role of the House of Mażara'i in Egypt in the 3rd and 4th Centuries A.H.
Elham Amini Kashani
PhD Student of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Tehran University of Science and Research
Máżaraian is the name of an Iranian Household exercising power in Egypt and Syria. The members of this family managed to assert their political and economic power from 266 to 335 A.H. during the Tulunid (254–292 A.H.), Wálid (291–323 A.H.) and Ikhshidid (323-358 A.H.) periods. They became so powerful that their prominence superceded the borders of Egypt and their names appeared as candidates on ministerial lists in Baghdad as well. Among the members of this house, Abu Zanbur Hosein ibn Ahmad and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ali are better known and have contributed more to the fame and power of their family. This paper intends to introduce those members of this family whose names have been preserved in history and investigate their roles in the political and economic affairs of Egypt, Syria and sometimes Baghdad as well.
Keywords: Máżarai' Egypt; tribute; walids; Ekhshidids; Abbasid caliphs; ministers; Tulunids.
The Phenomenon of Khuruj (Revoit) in Early Islam
A Study of Fertile Grounds (with an Emphasis on the Record of the Rabi'ah and Tamim Tribes)
Simin Ghorbanpoor Dashtaki
M.A. in History of Islam, Az-Zahra University (Tehran)
With the end of the Battle of Siffin, the issue of Arbitration resulted in the rise of the Kharijites in the Muslim world. The occurance of events and incidents is the effect of numerous causes that are shaped and advanced by the social dynamics in a given society, and the phenomenon of Khuruj was no exception to this rule. A better understanding of the grounds that gave rise to this phenomenon can change the present superficial view commonly held by the public against the splinter group that raised the slogan "there is no verdict but Allah's" to oppse Imam Ali(A).
In this article , the Kharijite movement is not considered a spontaneous incident rather it is regarded an organized trend that had been in the waiting for 4 decades before it decided on open revolt in the Battle of Siffin.
Hence, the writer intends to investigate influential reasons that helped this movement declare its open opposition to the official Muslim establishment.
It seems that the social order rooted in tribal structure, environment – dependent pattern of sustenance – seeking, contradiction between social breeding and religious restrictions, and insistance by certain tribes to oppose the Quraysh are among the major reasons that gave rise to khuruj (Revolt) over the issue of Arbitration in the Battle of Siffin and its continuation in the consecutive periods of Muslim history.
Keywords: Khuruj (Revolt); tribal structure; social breeding; religious restrictions.
A Comparison Between the Twelver Shi'ah Mahdism and Fukuyama's Theory of End of History
Faculty member, Tehran university
M.A. in History of Islam, Baghir-ol-Olum (A) University
The issue of Eschatology, a teaching of various religions and creeds including the Twelver Shi'ah, has come to the attention of Western Thinkers in the Contemporary era. One of the theorists whose ideas in this sphere have come to world attention is Francis Fukuyama. In this paper the theoretical bases of the Twelver Shi'ah Mahdism are compared with Fukuyama's theory of "End of History" along the following points: "Methodicalness of History", "Evolution of History", "Human Dignity" and finally "the Qualities and Peculiarities of the End of History". The articles conclude that the most important difference between the two views is related to their approach to man and the various dimensions of his existence.
Keywords: Twelver Shi'ah; Mahdism; Theory of End of History; Francis Fukuyama.
The Function of Religious Civilization, A Review of the Theory of Power-Dependent Government in the View of Ibn Khaldun
Translation: Reyhaneh Harampanahi
PhD. Student of History of Islam
This passage deals with an opinion of Ibn Khaldun about the ebb and flow of civilizations based on which there is a kind of compatibility and similarity between the periods and generations of a government on the one hand and the cycles of the relevant civilization on the other. According to the writer, viewing the distinction between rural life and urban life as a fundamental difference, Ibn Khaldun gives prominence to the role of politics and consequently government in urban life (as a representation of civilization) dividing it into the three categories of religious, rational, and civil.
Acconding to the writer's findings, Ibn Khaldun believes the more the government approximats religion, the more it will move towards "caliphte" as an example of the desired religious government, the more it will acquire the qualities of a kingdom, the same logic that is followed by the rise and fall of civilizations.
Keywords: Civilization; rural life; urban life; kingdom (government); religious politics; rational politics; civil politics; religious law-giver.