خرداد 1390
 
شماره : 5
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چکیده انگلیسی
عسکرى سليمانى اميرى



Rational demonstration of absolutely Perfect Being; Critical analysis of Inadequate Arguments

Askari Sulaymani Amiri
Faculty member of Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

In Islamic philosophy the Necessary Being is first demonstrated and then the fact that He is Necessary from all aspects is discussed as one of His the general properties. The implication of this principle is that he has of necessity every perfection and thus must be absolutely perfect. Muslim mystics also prove the existence of Necessary Being directly from the concept of absolute being or existence as such, arguing that absolute being implies infinity of being and such infinity implies every perfection in an infinite way. In this way they can said to have practiced like those who attempted to give proofs by either analyzing the concepts of absolute being or pre—eternal Necessity or negating sophistry. It is attempted in this article to deal with a number of successful arguments for the existence of perfect being along with a critical analysis of the invalid arguments in this domain

Keywords: Perfect Being, Necessary Being, pre-eternal Necessity, impossibility of contradiction, sophistry, Simple Reality proper.




Interpretation of Causality as Manifestation in Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy

Marzia Sadiq
Postgraduate of Islamic philosophy in Bagher al-Olum (A.s) University

The relation of the Necessary existence and possible beings or cause-effect relation is dealt with in Sadra’s existential system of philosophy in two ways: through the principle of fundamental reality of being Mulla Sadra attempts to justify this relation in a existential system and specific gradation of being and hold cause and effect not as two independent and separate beings related together in terms of traditional Aristotelian categories but with a relation of illumination in such a way that effect is the very relation to the cause not as something related to it. Later in his treatment however he comes to the conclusion that the only real being is the Essence of God and the rest what seem to be existent are but manifestations and states of that Unique real existence for some reasons. To begin with effect has no independent identity from cause. Secondly cause is infinite being devoid of imperfection and thirdly simple reality proper, comprehend and encompass everything. Mulla Sadra treat these grounds i.e. existential poverty of everything other than God, specific gradation as a bridge to the proof of individual unity of being, borrowing mystical terminology to envisage properly the self-manifestation and self –revelation of the only real Being.

Keywords: fundamental reality of being, specific gradation, cause and effect, existential poverty, Simple Reality, gradation in manifestations, absolute existence.



Immortality of Soul from Ibn Sina’s Viewpoint

Masuma Safdari
Postgraduate of Islamic philosophy in Bagher al-Olum (A.s) University

Human soul can be perfected by being related to, and making use of, the body. Relation of these two, however, is perpetual. For matter is in constant change (generation and corruption) and thus soul lead finally a new course and sort of life. Death accordingly does not mean annihilation but a kind of separation of body and soul
Ibn Sina held all human souls to be immortal. To him, soul is an independent substance which needs body only in the stage of acting. He proved the spiritual resurrection by rational arguments. Avicenna confessed to be unable to demonstrate the reality of bodily resurrection and maintained that it would be acceptable on the ground of revealed proofs

Keywords: immortality, soul, individuation of souls, unification of souls, Ibn Sina.



“Philosophy of” Disciplines?!

Sayyed Ali Taheri Khorramabadi
Assistant professor of Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Philosophy used to be a general title for all sciences. After medieval era the westerners paid attention specifically to physical parts of philosophy and thus scientists of natural sciences were distinguished from other scholars in philosophy. In modern times in the west different fields of philosophy, all which share non-empirical method, were gradually differentiated with separate disciplinary titles. The term “philosophy of” was coined to indicate these various and different disciplines as opposed to (general) philosophy and it is now current in philosophical circles of Iran. This term however contains no important disciplinary basis and seems to be of harmful consequences for the growth and promotion of philosophy in Iran.

Keywords: “philosophy of”, Metaphysics, philosophy.




The Status of Sharia in Moral Thought of Miskawayh

Sayyed Husain Mo’meni
Ph. D. student in Islamic ethics

Abu Ali Miskawayh is among important scholars in the history of Islamic thought. He played an important role in organization of philosophical ethics. What distinguished him from other philosophers and thinkers is his serious participation in political and social activities in his days, which had a remarkable influence on his thought so that he regarded as the main problem of governments and communities the negligence of self-purification and morality. That is why Miskawayh concerned himself to discuss moral issues.
This article is to show how important Sharia was in his thought and whether or not he as a Muslim philosopher speculated in context of Sharia. On surveying his works one can clearly see that his main concern was to draw attention to Sharia and revealed doctrines.

Keywords: ethics, felicity, Sharia, intellect, revelation, Miskawayh.




Comparative Study of Conventional concepts in logical Treatises of Allama Tabataba’i

Mansoor Ahmadi
Associate professor of Martyr Beheshti University

Ahmad Reza Yazdani Muqaddam
Ph. D. student in political science in Baqir Al-Ulum University

The theory of conventional perceptions regarded as modern theory of Islamic philosophy is to analyze the way these concepts are obtained, their divisions and the impact they have on external world. They are of logical nature as well as philosophical ones, and it can be said that conventional concepts belonged originally to logic was introduced to philosophy. The present article is deals with the logical nature of conventional concepts in Allama's logical treatises, giving account on the way such concepts were developed in his thought. It seems that the late Allama in analyzing them had other (ten) subjects in his mind. It will be shown that his logical views on conventional concepts in his other treatises and essays such as Man in This World and Al-welaya as well as the sixth book of Philosophy and Method of Realism were used and considered as background for his works particularly for his grand voluminous exegesis al- Mizan.

Keywords: conventional concepts, conventional perceptions, Allama Tabataba’i, generally accepted premises, illusory concepts, logic.

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